Archivo de la categoría: Disclosure


The GEAR members Ángela García-Alaminos, Jorge Zafrilla and Fabio Monsalve have recently published the paper entitled “Forced labour in the fashion industry: a hypothetical EU-driven reorganisation of textile value chains” in Economic Systems Research.

Given recent breakdowns in global value chains, like the COVID-19 crisis or the conflict in Ukraine, developed economies are trying to develop resilience to address future drawbacks. Backshoring and nearshoring arise as attractive solutions to reduce exposure to global disruptions and undesirable practices such as forced labour.

This study analyses the labour impacts of a hypothetical EU-driven reconfiguration of value chains of the fashion industry through a multi-regional input-output model. Using the Structural Path Analysis methodology, how forced labour is transmitted within Europe is explored. Once the forced labour hotspots are determined, we explore the socioeconomic consequences of a trade-restructuring strategy simulated through the source-shifting technique.

Our results show that the forced labour embodied in the European final demand for fashion products could fall by up to 34.2%. This strategy could generate more than 190,000 jobs in Europe, while China and India could lose more than 1.5 million jobs each.

You can find the full-text here:


Towards a World Integrated and Socio-economically Balanced European Economic Development Scenario (TWIN SEEDS) is a research project funded within the Horizon Europe program led by Politecnico di Milano (Grant agreement ID: 101056793)

The project studies the recent evolution of Global Value Chains (GVC), with the aim of understanding the role played by technological transformations and geopolitical and policy shifts in shaping these changes. Thanks to the joint effort of eleven universities and research institutions from eight EU countries, TWIN SEEDS is expected to enrich the European debates and public policies aiming at economic prosperity, social cohesion and environmental quality in the light of the still unknown effects of GVC reconfiguration.

Please visit our website:

GEAR is part of the TWIN SEEDS consortium; see you worldwide!


Great news!!

The GEAR member Mateo Ortiz, under the supervision of María Ángeles Cadarso and Luis Antonio López, has completed his Ph.D.!!

The thesis, entitled “La huella de carbono de agentes no estatales. Análisis a través de las cadenas globales de producción de multinacionales y ciudades”, presents three peer reviewed publications that you can easily access here:

  • Ortiz, M., Cadarso, M. Á. y López, L. A. (2020). The carbon footprint of foreign multinationals within the European Union. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 24(6), 1287-1299. doi:10.1111/jiec.13017 LINK
  • Ortiz, M., López, L.-A. y Cadarso, M. Á. (2020). EU carbon emissions by multinational enterprises under control-based accounting. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 163, 105104. doi: LINK
  • Gilles, E., Ortiz, M., Cadarso, M.-Á., Monsalve, F. y Jiang, X. (2021). Opportunities for city carbon footprint reductions through imports source shifting: The case of Bogota. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 172, 105684. doi: LINK

Mateo did an astonishing Thesis defense in front of a amazing thesis tribunal composed by Mònica Serrano (from Universidad de Barcelona), Ignacio Cazcarro (from Universidad de Zaragoza and ARAID) y André Carrascal (from Universidad de Oviedo).

Undoubtedly a day to remember for the GEAR group. Congratulations Mateo; thank you for your great work, incredible effort, and good mood.

Great doctor, with and without a tie…


Great news from GEAR!!

Santacruz Banacloche, under the supervision of María Ángeles Cadarso and Fabio Monsavle, has recently completed his Ph.D.!!

Santacruz has presented an insightful and diverse thesis that rests on the knowledge and work experiences acquired in CEPAL and CIEMAT, always well linked to a strong MRIO modelization storytelling.

The thesis, entitled “Análsiis de la sostenibilidad de las inversiones verdes en el camino hacia la transición energética y la descarbonización de la economía. La importancia de las cadenas globales de valor”, presents three peer reviewed publications that you can check following the next links:

  • Banacloche, S., Cadarso, M.Á., Monsalve, F., 2020. Implications of measuring value added in exports with a regional input-output table. A case of study in South America. Structural Change and Economic Dynamics 52, 130-140. LINK
  • Banacloche, S., Cadarso, M.A., Monsalve, F., Lechon, Y., 2020. Assessment of the sustainability of Mexico green investments in the road to Paris. Energy Policy 141, 111458. LINK
  • Banacloche, S., Herrera, I., Lechón, Y., 2020. Towards energy transition in Tunisia: Sustainability assessment of a hybrid concentrated solar power and biomass plant. Science of The Total Environment 744, 140729. LINK

Congratulations Santacruz, thank you for your hard work and your tenacity!!

See you soon!

GEAR develops the photovoltaic sector macroeconomic report for the 2020 UNEF annual report

On 15 July, UNEF presented its annual report for 2020 entitled “The photovoltaic sector towards a new era” at a virtual press conference.

This report, which reviews the situation of the sector at the national and international level, devotes a complete section to the analysis and evaluation of the main macroeconomic indicators of the sector. This section has been developed, for the third consecutive year, by the GEAR research group of the University of Castilla-La Mancha (UCLM).

Some of the main data in the report place the Spanish photovoltaic sector as a leader at the European level and sixth worldwide.

The photovoltaic sector as a whole generates a direct impact on national GDP of 3,220 million euros (0.26% of total GDP) and a total of 58,699 jobs considering direct, indirect, and induced employment.

Access all the information and the complete report from

GEAR on air!

The use of bicycle for commuting can lead to healthier urban environments. In this radio interview Nuria Gómez explains how public bicycle services can contribute to this aim.

If you want to know more about this topic, you can also read her recent article in The Conversation:

Bicycle, Health and Wellbeing!

¡Bicicleta, salud y bienestar!

GEAR “on air” again!

Last April 28th, GEAR participated in the scientific disclosure radio show “Investiga que no es poco” of CMM radio about the recent publication in Nature Communications.
You can listen to the interview from the following link (notice, the interview is in Spanish):


Thank you Román for your great interview. It was a big pleasure to be part of the reference programme of scientific dissemination in Castilla-La Mancha.

GEAR in the beautiful Seville

Last March 26, the GEAR member Luis Antonio López, was invited by the “Cátedra de Economía de la Energía y del Medio Ambiente” to present the conference entitled “Principales nodos de CO2 asociados al comercio internacional entre China y el resto del mundo” in the framework of the XII Jornada de Econonía y Medio Ambiente” at the Faculty of Economics and Business Sciences, University of Seville.

Thanks for the invitation to our colleagues from the Department of “Economic Analysis and Political Economics” and the Cátedra de Economía de la Energía y del Medio Ambiente.

We hope you have enjoyed the conference!


The Global Energy and Environmental Economic Analysis Research Group (GEAR) from the University of Castilla-La Mancha (UCLM) has signed a new contract with UNEF to develop the 2017-2018 macroeconomic status report of the solar photovoltaic sector in Spain.

The report will present a detailed economic, social and environmental assessment of the current situation of the solar photovoltaics Spanish sector in an MRIO context.

The report is going to be presented ending May in the UNEF’s headquarter in Madrid.

GEAR acknowledges UNEF the confidence in the Academic Research, as helps to spread to the society and to the economy the scientific knowledge.

GEAR in national press (Materia – El País)

María Ángeles Cadarso, the GEAR’s Group co-director, has participated today in MATERIA, the scientifical section of the national newspaper EL PAÍS.

The interview is related to a recently Nature Climate Change published paper about the Global Tourism Industry impact on Climate Change.

María Ángeles has provided some Spanish carbon footprint evidence for the case of the Tourism Industry. Comments are based on some of the results shown in previously GEAR’s published papers in the Journal of Cleaner Production and in the Journal of Sustainable Tourism.

Big pleasure!