Towards a World Integrated and Socio-economically Balanced European Economic Development Scenario (TWIN SEEDS) is a research project funded within the Horizon Europe program led by Politecnico di Milano (Grant agreement ID: 101056793)

The project studies the recent evolution of Global Value Chains (GVC), with the aim of understanding the role played by technological transformations and geopolitical and policy shifts in shaping these changes. Thanks to the joint effort of eleven universities and research institutions from eight EU countries, TWIN SEEDS is expected to enrich the European debates and public policies aiming at economic prosperity, social cohesion and environmental quality in the light of the still unknown effects of GVC reconfiguration.

Please visit our website:

GEAR is part of the TWIN SEEDS consortium; see you worldwide!


Fantastic news from GEAR!!

The GEAR member, Ángela García Alaminos has completed her PhD!! Congratulations!!

Under the supervision of Jorge Zafrilla and Fabio Monsalve, the thesis entitled “Trabajo indigno en las cadenas globales de valor: un análisis de responsabilidades”, presents four chapters, three peer-reviewed publications, and one under-review publication. You can access the already-published papers here:

  • García-Alaminos, Á., et al. (2020). “Reassembling social defragmented responsibilities: the indecent labour footprint of US multinationals overseas.” Economic Systems Research: 1-19. LINK
  • García-Alaminos, Á., Monsalve, F., Zafrilla, J., & Cadarso, M.-A. (2020). Unmasking social distant damage of developed regions’ lifestyle: A decoupling analysis of the indecent labour footprint. PLoS ONE, 15(4) LINK
  • Monsalve, F., Zafrilla, J.E., Cadarso, M.-Á.,  and García-Alaminos, Á. 2018. Is the emperor wearing new clothes? A social assessment of the European Union 2007–2013 financial framework. Economic Systems Research: 1-20 in press. LINK

In Ángela’s dissertation thesis defense, we were able to enjoy a masterful presentation in which she demonstrated a very high level of knowledge about the abject phenomenon of indecent work along the global production chains.

The thesis tribunal was formed by the renowned doctors Rocío Román, from the University of Seville, Iñaki Arto, from BC3 of the Basque Country, and André Carrascal, from the University of Oviedo.

Undoubtedly, a day to remember for the GEAR group.

Congratulations, Ángela, for your outstanding thesis, incredible work capacity, and generosity in sharing it.

Another great doctorate “made in GEAR”.


The GEAR members Pilar Osorio, María Ángeles Cadarso, María Ángeles Tobarra and Ángela García-Alaminos have recently published in Structural Change and Economic Dynamics the paper entitled: «Carbon footprint of tourism in Spain: Covid-19 impact and a look forward to recovery».

This paper quantifies the impact of the pandemic on Spanish tourism carbon footprint by using an environmentally extended multiregional input-output model. It also provides several scenarios to evaluate possible trends of tourism recovery and their impact on emissions. The results show that more ambition is needed: major changes in consumption patterns and efficiency are required to get on track towards the Net Zero targets.

We invite you to read the article and hope you find it interesting.



Pilar Osorio was awarded the «Albacete Young Research and Scientific Culture Prize 2022» for the work “Spanish household’s carbon footprint: Analysis of sustainable consumption with a gender perspective”.This distinction has been awarded by the Albacete City Council and the Department of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, to stimulate scientific vocations among young people.


The journal Global Environmental Change published a new research by GEAR member. This article is the result of a new collaboration between Luis Antonio López, María Ángeles Cadarso and Mateo Ortiz with Prof. Xuemei Jiang (Capital University of Economics and Business, Beijing). In the paper entitled “The emissions responsibility accounting of multinational enterprises for an efficient climate policy”, the authors propose a novel method to allocate CO2 emissions among countries integrating the emissions transfers through multinationals and foreign investment. This method, called technology-adjusted investment-based emission accounting (TIBA), rewards the home regions of multinationals that transfer clean technology to other regions through their affiliates.

The main finding of the work indicates that the application of the TIBA method on a global scale has the potential to reduce global CO2 emissions up to 16%.

We invite you to read the article and hope you find it interesting.



GEAR members Mateo Ortiz, Maria Ángeles Cadarso and Luis Antonio López achieve a new publication on the global supply chains of multinational enterprises, this time in collaboration with our colleague Xuemei Jiang of Capital University of Economics and Business (Beijing, China).

In the paper entitled “The trade-off between the economic and environmental footprints of multinationals’ foreign affiliates”, the authors trace the CO2 emissions and value added generated along the global supply chains of multinationals and quantify the trade-offs between their economic benefits and environmental impacts. They found that value added and ownership are concentrated in developed countries, while CO2 emissions are mostly released in developing countries.

The article also provides comparisons between the economic-environmental performance of multinationals and domestic-owned companies. In this respect, it finds that foreign affiliates in OECD countries show higher CO2 intensities and carbon leakages than the domestic firms in the same countries.

We strongly encourage you to read this great article on a very interesting topic. We hope you like it!



Great news!!

The GEAR member Mateo Ortiz, under the supervision of María Ángeles Cadarso and Luis Antonio López, has completed his Ph.D.!!

The thesis, entitled “La huella de carbono de agentes no estatales. Análisis a través de las cadenas globales de producción de multinacionales y ciudades”, presents three peer reviewed publications that you can easily access here:

  • Ortiz, M., Cadarso, M. Á. y López, L. A. (2020). The carbon footprint of foreign multinationals within the European Union. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 24(6), 1287-1299. doi:10.1111/jiec.13017 LINK
  • Ortiz, M., López, L.-A. y Cadarso, M. Á. (2020). EU carbon emissions by multinational enterprises under control-based accounting. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 163, 105104. doi: LINK
  • Gilles, E., Ortiz, M., Cadarso, M.-Á., Monsalve, F. y Jiang, X. (2021). Opportunities for city carbon footprint reductions through imports source shifting: The case of Bogota. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 172, 105684. doi: LINK

Mateo did an astonishing Thesis defense in front of a amazing thesis tribunal composed by Mònica Serrano (from Universidad de Barcelona), Ignacio Cazcarro (from Universidad de Zaragoza and ARAID) y André Carrascal (from Universidad de Oviedo).

Undoubtedly a day to remember for the GEAR group. Congratulations Mateo; thank you for your great work, incredible effort, and good mood.

Great doctor, with and without a tie…


The GEAR members Luis Antonio López, María Ángeles Tobarra, María Ángeles Cadarso y Nuria Gómez, in collaboration with Ignacio Cazcarro, Enrique Gilles, researcher at BC3 and University of Zaragoza, have recently published in Ecological Economics the paper entitled: « Eating local and in-season fruits and vegetables: Carbon-water-employment trade-offs and synergies».

This paper explores the interactions among carbon emissions, scarce water use, and employment linked to imports and domestic production. The decision to consume domestic or imported products has consequences at different levels, this work allows us to compare the impact on greenhouse gases, water and the creation of new jobs by applying an innovative decisions analysis tool, the seasonal avoided footprint by imports (SAFM). Obtained results point to the need to design certification systems that jointly consider appropriate social, economic, and environmental issues.



The GEAR members Ángela García, Jorge Zafrilla, and Fabio Monsalve, in collaboration with Enrique Gilles, researcher at @CESA_edu, have recently published in the Journal of Cleaner Production the paper entitled: “Measuring a university’s environmental performance: A standardized proposal for carbon footprint assessment”.

This paper explores the role of organizations fighting climate change and offers a standardized and refined model to assess the direct and indirect carbon footprint embodied in the organization’s activity. In the analyzed case, a Colombian University, results show how more than 94% of total emissions are indirect. Computing indirect emissions along the global value chains are crucial for an effective fight against global warming.

Please, enjoy this 50 days of free access to the paper:

RED MENTES seminar (24/11/21)

On November 24, 2021, at the CIEMAT-Madrid headquarters, we enjoy the network’s seminar entitled “TOWARDS A FAIR ENERGY TRANSITION. RECENT LINES OF WORK OF THE MENTES NETWORK”. All the members of the Network were able to share our latest work.

We show you the program of presentations as well as some photos:




24 de noviembre de 2021; CIEMAT, Madrid


9.30 – 10.00:      Bienvenida y recogida documentación.

10.00 – 10.30:   Presentación Grupo 1. IIT – Comillas: “Programación robusta en energía”, Pedro Linares y Antonio Francisco Rodríguez Matas.

10.30 -11.00:     Presentación Grupo 2. IMDEA-Energía: “Modelización energética en la Unidad                                                  de Análisis de Sistemas de IMDEA Energía”, Diego Iribarren.

11.00 -11.30:    Presentación Grupo 3. BC3: “Líneas de investigación y proyectos en curso”, Iñaki Arto.

11.30 -12.00:     Descanso – café.

12.00 -12.30:     CIEMAT: “the importance of CSP cooperation projects in Europe to deal with sustainability for the energy transitions”, Santacruz Banacloche y Yolanda Lechón.    

12.30 -13.00:     Presentación Grupo 5. INARBE – UPNA. «Eficiencia energética y efectos rebote», Pablo Arocena y Antonio Gómez-Plana

13.00 -13.30:     Presentación Grupo 4. GEEDS – Uva: “Líneas de investigación y proyectos en curso”, Luis Javier Miguel y Luis Llases González.

13.30 – 15.30:   Descanso – Comida.


15.30 – 16.00:    Presentación Grupo 7. GEAR – UCLM: “La extensión de la sentencia Shell a todas las multinacionales a nivel mundial”, Luis López, Mª Ángeles Cadarso y Mª Ángeles Tobarra.

16.00 – 16.30:    Presentación Grupo 8. Tecnalia: “Plataforma de planificación-proyecto Bideratu”, Diego García Gusano.

16.30 – 17.00:    Descanso – café.

17.00 – 17.30:   Presentación Grupo 9. Presentación grupo 6. CREDENAT – Unizar: “Líneas de investigación y proyectos en curso”. Ignacio Cazcarro y Raquel Langarita.

17.30 – 17.45:   Discusión de temas de la Red (agradecimientos artículo, Jornada de modelización, próxima reunión y curso de verano).

17.45 – 18.00:   Conclusiones y cierre.