The GEAR researcher Mateo Ortiz was awarded the «Albacete Young Research and Scientific Culture Prize 2021» in the University Research category for his work on The carbon footprint of multinational enterprises and their potential to transfer climate policies and sustainable production patterns. This distinction has been awarded by the Albacete City Council and the Department of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, to stimulate scientific vocations and talent among young people under 30 years of age.

We are very proud and happy with this recognition to the young researchers of the GEAR group.


Great news from GEAR!!

Santacruz Banacloche, under the supervision of María Ángeles Cadarso and Fabio Monsavle, has recently completed his Ph.D.!!

Santacruz has presented an insightful and diverse thesis that rests on the knowledge and work experiences acquired in CEPAL and CIEMAT, always well linked to a strong MRIO modelization storytelling.

The thesis, entitled “Análsiis de la sostenibilidad de las inversiones verdes en el camino hacia la transición energética y la descarbonización de la economía. La importancia de las cadenas globales de valor”, presents three peer reviewed publications that you can check following the next links:

  • Banacloche, S., Cadarso, M.Á., Monsalve, F., 2020. Implications of measuring value added in exports with a regional input-output table. A case of study in South America. Structural Change and Economic Dynamics 52, 130-140. LINK
  • Banacloche, S., Cadarso, M.A., Monsalve, F., Lechon, Y., 2020. Assessment of the sustainability of Mexico green investments in the road to Paris. Energy Policy 141, 111458. LINK
  • Banacloche, S., Herrera, I., Lechón, Y., 2020. Towards energy transition in Tunisia: Sustainability assessment of a hybrid concentrated solar power and biomass plant. Science of The Total Environment 744, 140729. LINK

Congratulations Santacruz, thank you for your hard work and your tenacity!!

See you soon!


Santiago J. Rubio from the University of Valencia and GEAR Group member Ángela García-Alaminos have recently published a new research article entitled “Emission taxes and feed-in subsidies in the regulation of a polluting monopoly” in SERIEs – Journal of the Spanish Economic Association.

The paper studies and compares the use of emission taxes and feed-in subsidies for the regulation of a monopoly that can produce the same good with a technology that employs a polluting input and a clean technology. First, it is showed that the efficient solution could be implemented combining a tax on emissions and a subsidy on clean output. The second-best tax and subsidy are also calculated through a two-stage policy game between the regulator and the monopoly, concluding that the second-best tax rate can be the Pigouvian tax, but only if the marginal costs of the clean technology are constant. A linear-quadratic specification of the model is also developed, allowing for a comparison of both policy instruments.

This work was awarded the “Young Researcher in Energy Economics Prize” by Red Eléctrica de España and the Spanish Association for Energy Economics in January 2020.

We hope you enjoy it!



GEAR Group members Ángela García-Alaminos, Mateo Ortiz, Guadalupe Arce, and Jorge Zafrilla have recently published a new research article in Economic Systems Research.

The paper, entitled “Reassembling social defragmented responsibilities: the indecent labour footprint of US multinationals overseas”, presents news insights about the social impacts embodied in multinational firms’ global value chains.  Combining a  socially extended MRIO model with three social indicators (forced labour, fatal and nonfatal occupational injuries) from the indecent labour database developed by Ángela García-Alaminos,  we find that the activities of US multinationals foreign affiliates show increasing trends between 2009 and 2013 on indecent labour, contributing with 1.1%–1.3% of the global cases. United States affiliates located in India, China, and Brazil show the highest ratios per unit of value-added.

This work was awarded the “6th Emilio Fontela Research Prize in Input-Output Analysis” by the Hispanic-American Input-Output Society (SHAIO) in September 2019.

We hope you enjoy it!


GEAR develops the photovoltaic sector macroeconomic report for the 2020 UNEF annual report

On 15 July, UNEF presented its annual report for 2020 entitled “The photovoltaic sector towards a new era” at a virtual press conference.

This report, which reviews the situation of the sector at the national and international level, devotes a complete section to the analysis and evaluation of the main macroeconomic indicators of the sector. This section has been developed, for the third consecutive year, by the GEAR research group of the University of Castilla-La Mancha (UCLM).

Some of the main data in the report place the Spanish photovoltaic sector as a leader at the European level and sixth worldwide.

The photovoltaic sector as a whole generates a direct impact on national GDP of 3,220 million euros (0.26% of total GDP) and a total of 58,699 jobs considering direct, indirect, and induced employment.

Access all the information and the complete report from

GEAR on air!

The use of bicycle for commuting can lead to healthier urban environments. In this radio interview Nuria Gómez explains how public bicycle services can contribute to this aim.

If you want to know more about this topic, you can also read her recent article in The Conversation:

Bicycle, Health and Wellbeing!

¡Bicicleta, salud y bienestar!


GEAR Members Jorge Zafrilla, Ángela García-Alaminos, and Fabio Monsalve have recently published a new book chapter. You can find “The Sustainability Challenge of Dairy Livestock Systems” inside the book Sustainable and Environmentally Friendly Dairy Farms, edited by Santiago García-Yuste, it is part of the SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology book series.

The book, Sustainable and Environmentally Friendly Dairy Farms, presents an innovative environmental proposal. While chiefly focusing on dairy farms, the environmental solution it describes applies to the entire livestock sector. This book is divided into five chapters elaborated by eight authors. The first chapter -written by the GEAR members listed above – describes the current situation of the global dairy livestock industry under the influence and challenge of the commitments of the so-called Paris Agreement and addresses the carbon footprint of dairy farms. Firstly, the key points of the Agreement affecting the livestock and dairy systems are discussed within the framework of the Sustainable Development Goals. Next, a detailed analysis of the evolution of the activity and the greenhouse gas emissions of the industry is presented. Finally, a summary of current environmental solutions and bioeconomy alternatives will contribute to enriching the discussion.

This contribution is part of the collaboration of the GEAR group in a UCLM’s multidisciplinary research group. Together with chemists and engineers, who are working on techniques for the capture and use of CO2.

LINK to the ebook:


GEAR members Mateo Ortiz, Maria Ángeles Cadarso and Luis Antonio López carried out a study on the carbon footprint associated with the activities of multinational companies operating in the European Union. The paper entitled ”The carbon footprint of foreign multinationals within the European Union” is part of the GEAR’s project to evaluate the role of multinational enterprises as key actors in the fight against climate change and the reduction of carbon emissions along global supply chains. A previous paper related to this project was already published in Nature Communications.

In this new paper, the authors reveal that, during 2015, the emissions directly and indirectly generated by multinational’s foreign affiliates operating within the European Union are estimated at 714 Mt of CO2, which accounts for 17% of the total carbon footprint of the European Union. Although most of these carbon emissions are generated by foreign affiliates located in the United Kingdom and Germany, the findings suggest that low-income EU-members receive higher amounts of emissions in relation to the value added created by the foreign affiliates they host.

The paper also provides valuable insights into the potential for multinational corporations to become actors of change in terms of reducing global emissions by taking responsibility for the environmental impacts of their affiliates and suppliers worldwide and by spreading low-carbon practices across countries and industries.

We strongly encourage you to read this great article on a very interesting topic. We hope you like it!



The GEAR members Manuel Tomás, Luis A. López and Fabio Monsalve, have recently published the article entitled «Carbon footprint, municipality size and rurality in Spain: Inequality and carbon taxation» in Journal of Cleaner Production.

In this paper, the authors assess the Spanish households’ carbon footprint for the 2008-2017 period considering the municipality size as well as the urban or rural residential zone. In light of the results, they test whether the carbon footprint inequality among households could lead to asymmetric regressive impacts based on where families live.

We hope you enjoy it!



GEAR group members Luis Antonio López, Maria Ángeles Cadarso and Mateo Ortiz carried out a study on the evolution of CO2 emissions embodied in Spain’s imports and exports during 2005-2014. In the paper entitled ‘The carbon footprint of the Spanish international trade’ the authors quantify and analyse the CO2 emissions associated with Spain’s traded products and provide valuable insights on the role played by international trade in the Spanish and European pursuit for low-carbon production and consumption.

Please, CLICK HERE to read the full paper (only available in Spanish). We hope you like it.

ICE, Journal of Economics is an academic journal published by the Ministry of Industry, Trade and Tourism of Spain whose scope is to contribute to the debate of economic policy.