Pilar Osorio was awarded the «Albacete Young Research and Scientific Culture Prize 2022» for the work “Spanish household’s carbon footprint: Analysis of sustainable consumption with a gender perspective”.This distinction has been awarded by the Albacete City Council and the Department of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, to stimulate scientific vocations among young people.


The journal Global Environmental Change published a new research by GEAR member. This article is the result of a new collaboration between Luis Antonio López, María Ángeles Cadarso and Mateo Ortiz with Prof. Xuemei Jiang (Capital University of Economics and Business, Beijing). In the paper entitled “The emissions responsibility accounting of multinational enterprises for an efficient climate policy”, the authors propose a novel method to allocate CO2 emissions among countries integrating the emissions transfers through multinationals and foreign investment. This method, called technology-adjusted investment-based emission accounting (TIBA), rewards the home regions of multinationals that transfer clean technology to other regions through their affiliates.

The main finding of the work indicates that the application of the TIBA method on a global scale has the potential to reduce global CO2 emissions up to 16%.

We invite you to read the article and hope you find it interesting.



GEAR members Mateo Ortiz, Maria Ángeles Cadarso and Luis Antonio López achieve a new publication on the global supply chains of multinational enterprises, this time in collaboration with our colleague Xuemei Jiang of Capital University of Economics and Business (Beijing, China).

In the paper entitled “The trade-off between the economic and environmental footprints of multinationals’ foreign affiliates”, the authors trace the CO2 emissions and value added generated along the global supply chains of multinationals and quantify the trade-offs between their economic benefits and environmental impacts. They found that value added and ownership are concentrated in developed countries, while CO2 emissions are mostly released in developing countries.

The article also provides comparisons between the economic-environmental performance of multinationals and domestic-owned companies. In this respect, it finds that foreign affiliates in OECD countries show higher CO2 intensities and carbon leakages than the domestic firms in the same countries.

We strongly encourage you to read this great article on a very interesting topic. We hope you like it!



Great news!!

The GEAR member Mateo Ortiz, under the supervision of María Ángeles Cadarso and Luis Antonio López, has completed his Ph.D.!!

The thesis, entitled “La huella de carbono de agentes no estatales. Análisis a través de las cadenas globales de producción de multinacionales y ciudades”, presents three peer reviewed publications that you can easily access here:

  • Ortiz, M., Cadarso, M. Á. y López, L. A. (2020). The carbon footprint of foreign multinationals within the European Union. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 24(6), 1287-1299. doi:10.1111/jiec.13017 LINK
  • Ortiz, M., López, L.-A. y Cadarso, M. Á. (2020). EU carbon emissions by multinational enterprises under control-based accounting. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 163, 105104. doi: LINK
  • Gilles, E., Ortiz, M., Cadarso, M.-Á., Monsalve, F. y Jiang, X. (2021). Opportunities for city carbon footprint reductions through imports source shifting: The case of Bogota. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 172, 105684. doi: LINK

Mateo did an astonishing Thesis defense in front of a amazing thesis tribunal composed by Mònica Serrano (from Universidad de Barcelona), Ignacio Cazcarro (from Universidad de Zaragoza and ARAID) y André Carrascal (from Universidad de Oviedo).

Undoubtedly a day to remember for the GEAR group. Congratulations Mateo; thank you for your great work, incredible effort, and good mood.

Great doctor, with and without a tie…


The GEAR members Luis Antonio López, María Ángeles Tobarra, María Ángeles Cadarso y Nuria Gómez, in collaboration with Ignacio Cazcarro, Enrique Gilles, researcher at BC3 and University of Zaragoza, have recently published in Ecological Economics the paper entitled: « Eating local and in-season fruits and vegetables: Carbon-water-employment trade-offs and synergies».

This paper explores the interactions among carbon emissions, scarce water use, and employment linked to imports and domestic production. The decision to consume domestic or imported products has consequences at different levels, this work allows us to compare the impact on greenhouse gases, water and the creation of new jobs by applying an innovative decisions analysis tool, the seasonal avoided footprint by imports (SAFM). Obtained results point to the need to design certification systems that jointly consider appropriate social, economic, and environmental issues.



The GEAR members Ángela García, Jorge Zafrilla, and Fabio Monsalve, in collaboration with Enrique Gilles, researcher at @CESA_edu, have recently published in the Journal of Cleaner Production the paper entitled: “Measuring a university’s environmental performance: A standardized proposal for carbon footprint assessment”.

This paper explores the role of organizations fighting climate change and offers a standardized and refined model to assess the direct and indirect carbon footprint embodied in the organization’s activity. In the analyzed case, a Colombian University, results show how more than 94% of total emissions are indirect. Computing indirect emissions along the global value chains are crucial for an effective fight against global warming.

Please, enjoy this 50 days of free access to the paper:

RED MENTES seminar (24/11/21)

On November 24, 2021, at the CIEMAT-Madrid headquarters, we enjoy the network’s seminar entitled “TOWARDS A FAIR ENERGY TRANSITION. RECENT LINES OF WORK OF THE MENTES NETWORK”. All the members of the Network were able to share our latest work.

We show you the program of presentations as well as some photos:




24 de noviembre de 2021; CIEMAT, Madrid


9.30 – 10.00:      Bienvenida y recogida documentación.

10.00 – 10.30:   Presentación Grupo 1. IIT – Comillas: “Programación robusta en energía”, Pedro Linares y Antonio Francisco Rodríguez Matas.

10.30 -11.00:     Presentación Grupo 2. IMDEA-Energía: “Modelización energética en la Unidad                                                  de Análisis de Sistemas de IMDEA Energía”, Diego Iribarren.

11.00 -11.30:    Presentación Grupo 3. BC3: “Líneas de investigación y proyectos en curso”, Iñaki Arto.

11.30 -12.00:     Descanso – café.

12.00 -12.30:     CIEMAT: “the importance of CSP cooperation projects in Europe to deal with sustainability for the energy transitions”, Santacruz Banacloche y Yolanda Lechón.    

12.30 -13.00:     Presentación Grupo 5. INARBE – UPNA. «Eficiencia energética y efectos rebote», Pablo Arocena y Antonio Gómez-Plana

13.00 -13.30:     Presentación Grupo 4. GEEDS – Uva: “Líneas de investigación y proyectos en curso”, Luis Javier Miguel y Luis Llases González.

13.30 – 15.30:   Descanso – Comida.


15.30 – 16.00:    Presentación Grupo 7. GEAR – UCLM: “La extensión de la sentencia Shell a todas las multinacionales a nivel mundial”, Luis López, Mª Ángeles Cadarso y Mª Ángeles Tobarra.

16.00 – 16.30:    Presentación Grupo 8. Tecnalia: “Plataforma de planificación-proyecto Bideratu”, Diego García Gusano.

16.30 – 17.00:    Descanso – café.

17.00 – 17.30:   Presentación Grupo 9. Presentación grupo 6. CREDENAT – Unizar: “Líneas de investigación y proyectos en curso”. Ignacio Cazcarro y Raquel Langarita.

17.30 – 17.45:   Discusión de temas de la Red (agradecimientos artículo, Jornada de modelización, próxima reunión y curso de verano).

17.45 – 18.00:   Conclusiones y cierre.


The Science Network RED MENTES has recently published a joint contribution entitled “Energy-socio-economic-environmental modelling for the EU energy and post-COVID-19 transitions” in the journal Science of the Total Environment.

The paper argues how recovery plans are an opportunity to deepen the way towards a low-carbon economy, improving at the same time employment, health, and equity and the role of modelling tools. It is based on contributions from many network members and tries to justify how multidisciplinary modeling is key to the successful development of the energy transition. Policies must be focused on both short-term and long-term goals, and the assessment of the social impacts of the energy transition must be highlighted. The scientific community has to assess disparate, non-equilibrium, and non-ordinary scenarios, such as sectors and countries lockdowns, drastic changes in consumption patterns, significant investments in renewable energies, and disruptive technologies, and incorporate uncertainty analysis

This paper has been written by Ignacio Cazcarro, Diego García-Gusano,  Diego Iribarren, Pedro Linares José Carlos Romero, Pablo Arocena, Iñaki Arto, Santacruz Banacloche, Yolanda Lechón, Luis Javier Miguel, Jorge Zafrilla, Luis-Antonio López, Raquel Langarita y María-Ángeles Cadarso, from ARAID and University of Zaragoza, Tecnalia, IMDEA, Comillas Pontificial  University, Public University of Navarra, Basque Centre for Climate Change (BC3), CIEMAT, University of Valladolid and University of Castilla-La Mancha.

Read us at:

NEW PUBLICATION in Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews

UCLM researchers Abdessamad Gueddari-Aourir, Santiago García-Yuste, Carlos Alonso-Moreno, and Jesús Canales-Vázquez together with the GEAR Group members Ángela García-Alaminos and Jorge Zafrilla have recently published a new research article in Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews.

The paper, entitled “The carbon footprint balance of a real-case wine fermentation CO2 capture and utilization strategy”, evaluates the environmental impact of the so-called CO2-alcoholic fermentation processes (CO2-AFP) strategy, a recently developed eco-innovative strategy. This proposal offers a new pathway toward a greener wine-making production with a 16.79% reduction of the carbon footprint considering scopes 1 (direct emissions), 2 (emissions generated directly in the production of electricity), and 3 (indirect emissions embodied in the organization’s value chain). The paper presents the strategy development corresponding to a real case: a medium-size winery and distillery in Spain, where the “CO2-AFP Strategy” has been successfully tested and scaled up. Detailed and tested carbon capture and utilization schemes are used to evaluate the overall carbon footprint balance (carbon calculation, capture potential, and carbon balance) via an improved hybrid multiregional input-output-lifecycle assessment model (MRIO-LCA). The benefits go beyond the reduction of carbon footprint in the fermentation industry. The application of the “CO2-AFP Strategy” implies a revolution, in terms of Circular Economy, in the sodium carbonate industry, as the symbiotic process between the different stages of the value chain will allow downstream carbon footprint reductions, facilitating a greener sodium carbonate production.

We hope you enjoy it!    LINK

New chapter published

Sustainability and resilience in tourism through carbon footprint assessment

GEAR Members María Ángeles Cadarso, María Ángeles Tobarra, Ángela García-Alaminos, Mateo Ortiz, Nuria Gómez, and Jorge Zafrilla have recently published a new book chapter entitled “The Input–Output Method for Calculating the Carbon Footprint of Tourism: An Application to the Spanish Tourism Industry” inside the book Advances of Footprint Family for Sustainable Energy and Industrial Systems, edited by  J. Ren in the Green Energy and Technology Series in Springer International Publishing.

Tourism is an activity that represents a high share in GDP and employment in developed economies as the Spanish one (in which tourism contribution to GDP accounts for 12.3%), but also in developing areas. However, the sustainability of such activity is controversial because it is highly pollutant given its transport dependency. The pandemic crisis has struck tourism heavily, showing its high vulnerability too. Its recovery in the new normality shouldn’t constitute a return to the pre-pandemic situation, instead, it should be regarded as a chance to turn into a more sustainable and resilient activity. In this sense, this chapter calculates the carbon footprint of tourism for the Spanish economy in a pre-covid context and proposes it as a measure to evaluate monitor and establish strategies towards the reduction of the environmental impact of tourism.

The main results show that the carbon footprint of tourism in Spain accounts for 15% of the Spanish total emissions, which is above the global average (8%). In global terms, 29% of the total carbon footprint is imported, so it is, directly or indirectly, embodied in the global production chains. It is concentrated in some close European Union countries, China, BRIIAT, and the United States. At a sectoral level, the Spanish tourism carbon footprint is concentrated in some industries where emissions are mostly domestic (air transport, land transport, or retail trade).

We invite you to have a look at the chapter in this link: