” (…)

Examples from across the world paint a disturbing picture. Deliberate targeting of schools, students and teachers in Central and West Africa has led to an unprecedent total of 13,371 schools being closed as a result of conflict and insecurity.


Meanwile, Afghan girls faced yet another year being deprived from access to post-primary education. Since taking power in August 2021, the Taliban has ruined the hopes of many of them to access secondary or tertiary education. There is a fear of a lost generation of young girls and women in the country.


The EU continues its strong mobilisation for education in emergencies funding, dedicating 10% of its humanitarian aid budget to support access, quality and protection of education. For the next year, the EU has set aside around Eur 157 million to support learning for children and youth caught in humanitarian emergencies”.

(Paraghaps extracted from Mr Lenarčič Statement – full Statement is available here)

Related posts:

This recent Judgment of the General Court may be technically correct…

The Judgment of the General Court in Case T-600/21, related to some Syrian refugees who couldn´t present their asylum applications within EU territory and were returned from Greece to Türkiye with the assistance of Frontex (not yet published, only press release available so far), may be technically correct…

… however, something is happening in the East Mediterranean Route that needs further reflection by the European Union:

17th UN Report on the threat posed by ISIL (Da´esh) to international peace and security publised

On 25 August 2023, the “17th UN Report on the threat posed by ISIL (Da´esh) to international peace and security and the range of UN efforts in support of Member States in countering the threat” was presented at UN premises in New York – EN

According to the Report, in general terms the threat remains high in conflict zones and low in non-conflict areas, although the overall situation is quite dynamic and varies notably from one subregional to another (párr.(3)). In the particular region of Sahel, most relevant issues stressed by the report are as follows:

  • The Regional affiliates operating in East Africa, namely the Islamic State in the Greater Sahara (ISGS) and the Islamic State West Africa Province ( ISWAP)) have gained autonomy as result of a less hierarchical command and control structure by Da´esh core  (parr. 10 re parr. 24)
  • Sudan is frequently used by fighters of Libya, Mali and West Africa as a hub for arrival from Middle East and onward transfer and expanded in the region (parr. 23).
  • ISGS has increased the areas of operation and has the capacity to attack on several fronts in Mali and, to a lesser extent, Burkina Faso and the Niger. Its members, possibly in collaboration with ISWAP, are trying to establish a corridor to Nigeria for the purposes of logistical, supply and recruitment (parr. 25).
  • ISGS is in contact with terrorist cells operating in North African countries, as some of those dismantled by Moroccan authorities the first semester 2023 (parr. 27). 
  • There is no collaboration of ISGS with the Al-Qaida affiliated Jama´a Nusrat ul-Islam wa al-Muslimin (JNIM), but continuous armed confrontations, which are impacting the security situation in the Sahel and “may lead to alliances of convenience forged by tribal or ethnic considerations and with unpredictable consequences” (parr. 26).  
  • ISGS is actively involved on illicit trafficking of weapons and arms captured locally after attacks against national security forces, as well as from facilitation networks operating in southern Libya (parr. 16). 
  • Among other sources of financing (see extensively parr. 12), ISWAP allegedly “extorted local agricultural business and fishing operations in the Lake Chad basin and kidnapped civilians for ransom in Nigeria, raising significant sums”.

Jointly with UN Reports, at European level both Europol and Eurojust publishes regular reports on terrorism with law enforcement and judicial approaches. Such reports are mainly focused on the EU situation, however, the obvious links of most terrorist groups and cells operating in Europe with third States motivates that those reports cover also the external dimension of terrorism.

The last EU Terrorism Situation & Trend Report (TESAT) is available below. It is drafted by Europol experts officials on terrorism on the basis of information provided by EU Member States and Eurojust.

Eurojust provides valuable information on terrorism cases in Annual Reports (2022 – EN). The cases are mostly referred to investigations and prosecutions conducted by national judges and prosecutors with Eurojust support. Among other relevant tools, Eurojust may organise coordination meetings to ensure cooperation and cooperation among the authorities from different EU Member States and third States concerned by the same terrorism threat, and/or assist in the setting up, conduct and financing of Joint Investigation Teams (JITs). As examples:

Furthermore, in 2019 Eurojust set up a Judicial Counter-Terrorism Register that collects information on judicial proceedings against suspects of terrorist offences and networks with potential cross-border implications. This EU Agency also participates in the definition of Justice criminal responses to foreign terrorist fighters (FTFs) and returnees from conflict zones. In close cooperation with its National Correspondents for terrorism matters and the Genocide Network, Eurojust may support the collection of battlefield evidence, i.e., the information collected by the military from armed conflict zones, so that such information may be used as evidence in criminal proceedings of EU Member States and third countries. With this relevant task, Eurojust support the role of UN and EU missions and operations, provides a crucial element for judicial authorities in trials and reinforces the testimonies of victims. As example, the Memorandum of Understanding signed between Eurojust and both the US Departments of Justice and of Defence on battlefield information collected by military personnel in Syria and Iraq is below. More information on Eurojust competences against terrorism offences is well described in below factsheet.

Lastly, I provide below two of my publications (2017) focused on the external dimension of EU Area of Freedom, Security and Justice, with special attention to the fight against Jihadist terrorism and Da´esh.

To eat or not to eat… sometimes, this is the question

A recent UNICEF report (20 June 2023, Lebanon Office, Edouard Beigdeber) has alerted that Lebanon families, including those of Syrian refugees, are cutting down the most essential expenses (food, health treatment, care of family possessions, items of female hygiene…) to cope with the escalating socio-economic crisis of the country. Among the desperate measures, they are forced to reduce spending of education and even stop such education and send children out to work.

To consult the reports, click on the photos above.

As countermeasures…

See also, in Relevant texts adopted by the European Parliament Plenary session on 10-13 July 2023 , the EP Resolution of 12 July 2023 on the situation in Lebanon (EN); on the same problematic in Iraq, see my post To eat or not to eat, should that be the question??

European Parliament Plenary Session – Some relevant texts adopted this week (10 – 13 July 2023)

  • European Parliament Resolution of 11 July 2023 on the implementation of passerelle clauses in the EU TreatiesEN 
  • European Parliament Resolution of 12 July 2023 on the situation in Lebanon (2023/2742(RSP)) – EN 
  • European Parliament Recommendation of 12 July 2023 to the Council, the Commission and the Vice-President of the Commission/ High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Council on relations with Palestinian Authority (2021/2207(INI)) – EN 
  • European Parliament Resolution of 13 July 2023 on the need for EU Action on search and rescue in the Mediterranean (2023/2787(RSP)) – EN & News and activities

European Parliament Plenary Session – Some relevant texts adopted this week (12 – 15 June 2023)

  • European Parliament Resolution of 15 June 2023 on the implementation and delivering of the Sustainable Development Goals (2023/2010(INI)) – EN 
  • European Parliament Resolution of 15 June 2023 on the situation in Sudan, in particular the death of children trapped by fighting (2023/2736(RSP)) – EN 
Children of Sudán – photo from

European Parliament Plenary Session – Some relevant texts adopted this week (17 – 19 January 2023)

  • European Parliament Resolution of 18 January 2023 on the implementation of the Common Foreign and Security Policy – Annual Report 2022 (2022/2048 (INI)) – EN
  • European Parliament Resolution of 18 January 2023 on the implementation of the Common Security and Defense Policy – Annual Report 2022 (2022/2050(INI)) – EN
  • European Parliament Resolution of 18 January 2023 on human rights and democracy in the world and the European Union’s policy on the matter – Annual Report 2022 (2022/2049(INI)) – EN 
  • European Parliament Resolution of 19 January 2023 on the EU response to the protests and executions in Iran (2023/2511(RSP)) – EN


European Parliament Plenary Session – Some relevant texts adopted this week (13 – 15 December 2022)

  • European Parliament Resolution of 14 December 2022 on the prospects of the two-state solution for Israel and Palestine (2022/2949(RSP)) – EN
  • European Parliament Resolution of 14 December 2022 on the implementation of the New European Agenda for Culture and the EU Strategy for International Cultural Relations (2022/2047(INI)) – EN 
  • European Parliament Resolution of 15 December 2022 on suspicions of corruption from Qatar and the broader need for transparency and accountability in the European institutions (2022/3012(RSP)) – EN

EU Action Plan against Trafficking in Cultural Goods

Photo by Alain Jocard/AFP via Getty Images. It is a carved marble that was seized in 2016 by French customs authorities at Roissy Airport, in transit from Lebanon to Thailand, and further exhibited at Louvre Museum.

Today, the European Commission has presented an Action Plan to fight illicit trafficking of cultural goods. With a multidisciplinary and comprehensive approach, the Communication includes measures to prevent, detect, investigate and prosecute criminal activities against cultural goods, and ways to strengthen and improve police and judicial cooperation in this field – EN