«From opportunity recognition to the start-up phase: the moderating role of family and friends-based entrepreneurial social networks», P Ruiz-Palomino y R Martínez-Cañas. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal.
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This study analyzes whether entrepreneurial intention mediates between opportunity recognition and the start-up phase of a business. It also sheds light on how the access to entrepreneurial social networks moderates this mediated relationship, as well as exploring which type of entrepreneurial social network (family- or friends-based) helps most in advancing the business project through the start-up process. The study uses original data on 616 university students enrolled in a variety of campuses and degrees in the central-southern area of Spain. The data reveal that entrepreneurial intention partially mediates the opportunity recognition–start-up phase relationship. Importantly, it reveals that a positive effect of this state of awareness on the start-up phase via entrepreneurial intention is stronger when someone in the social network owns a venture, especially if this person belongs to the potential entrepreneur’s family-based social network. The findings suggest that opportunity recognition is enough to advance through the start-up process, while also revealing that courses or curricular activities oriented towards fostering entrepreneurship should facilitate students’ access to entrepreneurial social networks. This paper is one of the few that helps better understand the path an individual should follow in order to advance through the start-up process once a market opportunity has been recognized. As a novel contribution to the literature, this paper elucidates how entrepreneurial social networks can help bridge the entrepreneurial intention-behavior gap and shows that access to family-based entrepreneurial social networks has a greater impact in this regard than friends-based entrepreneurial social networks.

«Are Corporate Social Responsibility Courses Effective? A Longitudinal and Gender-Based Analysis in Undergraduate Students». P Ruiz-Palomino, R Martínez-Cañas y P Jiménez Estevez. Sustainability 11(21), 6033;
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Despite the growing professional and academic interest in sustainability and corporate social responsibility (CSR) in recent decades, moral lapses continue to happen in the business arena. Because undergraduate students will be the managers and professionals of the future, training these students to be socially responsible is seen as critically relevant for reducing the likelihood of such moral lapses. However, the question of whether CSR courses can be effective is still debated and little is known about the role that gender may play in this relationship. This study analyzed data from 97 undergraduate students enrolled in a CSR course at a Spanish state university. These data were collected twice, (1) a week before the course had started and (2) a week after the course had been completed. The general lineal modelling (GLM) (repeated measures) procedure in SPSS revealed that CSR courses enhance students’ ethical decision-making. More importantly, the positive impact of these courses is stronger for female students than for male students. Thus, this study demonstrates the positive impact of corporate social responsibility courses on students’ ethical decision making, and sheds light on the target (female students) on which these courses is most effective.
Keywords: ethical decision making; gender; CSR courses; undergraduate students


«Consumer participation in co-creation: An enlightening model of causes and effects based on ethical values and transcendent motives»
R Martínez-Cañas, P Ruiz-Palomino, J Linuesa Langreo y JJ Blazquez-Resino
Frontiers in Psychology 7, 793
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In the current highly interconnected modern world, the role of consumers has changed substantially due to their active collaboration with companies in product and process innovation. Specifically, consumer participation has become key to the development of successful products and services, as companies have come to rely more and more on consumers’ opinion as a source of innovative ideas and brand value. However, whereas existing research has focused on identifying the different elements involved in consumers’ co-creation, there is still the need to comprehend better this complex mechanism by integrating distinct dimensional insights. With an integrative review of research into three important perspectives, one nurturing from the Service-Dominant logic, another one based on the information and communication technologies (ICTs) platforms, and (the ethical values-driven) Marketing 3.0 paradigm, this article proposes a conceptual framework in which consumers’ ethical values and transcendent motivations play an important role in encouraging their engagement in co-creation activities. In this connection, and with consumers increasingly embracing the need to fulfill a social and ethical function in society, the co-creation process is here comprehended as a means to emphasize the social and moral aspects of co-creation. This article also identifies the important, supportive role of the Marketing 3.0 paradigm and Web 3.0 tools to initiate the co-creation process, as well as the important valuable benefits attained by both companies and consumers after consumers engage in this process. Importantly, these benefits are highlighted to increase when ethical products are the object of these co-creation activities. All these insights have notable implications for both research and managerial practice.

Keywords: value co-creation,ethical values,transcendent motives,information and communication technologies,
ethical products, Marketing3.0, conceptual paper


«The Influence of Value Co-Creation on Consumer Satisfaction: A Mediating Role of Consumer Motivation»
MÁ García-Haro, MP Martínez-Ruiz, R Martínez-Cañas
International Journal of Online Marketing (IJOM) 5 (4), 60-83
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The importance of value co-creation processes to firms’ competitive strategy is widely recognized, both in practice and in academia. Therefore, it becomes essential to identify which variables drive consumers to collaborate with companies. A primary influence on this consumer decision relates to the search for greater satisfaction. This article proposes a theoretical model that relates the process of co-creating value with customer satisfaction. The proposed conceptual model also includes the user’s motivation as a potential mediating variable in the process that transforms co-creation activities into consumer satisfaction.
Keywords: Consumer Behavior, Consumer Satisfaction, Social Media, Value Co-Creation

«Level of coherence among ethics program components and its impact on ethical intent»
P Ruiz, R Martinez, J Rodrigo, C Diaz
Journal of Business Ethics 128 (4), 725-742
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Three ethics program components, a code of ethics, ethics training initiatives and ethics-oriented performance appraisal content, were examined for their relationship to ethical intent using a sample of 525 employees from the Spanish financial services industry. As expected, all three components contributed to the prediction of ethical intent. Importantly, clusters of employees who reported experiencing distinct combinations of the program components were identified and compared for their level of ethical intent. Employees who perceived all three components to be strongly implemented reported significantly higher levels of ethical intent relative to those who viewed the components as either all weakly implemented or not present. Combinations including training initiatives plus one other element had a similar impact to the fully implemented approach. Contrary to expectations, ethics-oriented performance appraisal content did not relate more strongly to ethical intent than codes of ethics.

Keywords: Ethics programIntegrated approachDecouplingEthical intentCoherence

«Risk and return characteristics of environmentally and socially responsible firms in Spain during a financial downturn : 2008-2011»
P Ruiz-Palomino, RD Pozo-Rubio, R Martínez-Cañas
South African Journal of Business Management 46 (2), 65-76


«Group work satisfaction at the university: An innovative experience in the new higher education degrees»
R del Pozo-Rubio, P Ruiz-Palomino, R Martínez-Cañas
Journal of International Education Research 10 (5), 295

«Consumer satisfaction and loyalty in private-label food stores»
M Pilar Martínez-Ruiz, P Ruiz-Palomino, R Martinez-Cañas y JJ Blazquez-Resino
British Food Journal 116 (5), 849-871

«Ethical culture, ethical intent, and organizational citizenship behavior: The moderating and mediating role of person–organization fit»
P Ruiz-Palomino, R Martínez-Cañas
Journal of business ethics 120 (1), 95-108

«Educational innovation and personalized tutoring in higher education: A personal and professional guidance»
R del Pozo-Rubio, P Ruiz-Palomino, R Martinez-Canas
Journal of International Education Research (JIER) 10 (1.5), 89-94

«The Effects of the Value Co-Creation Process on the Consumer and the Company»
MA García-Haro, MP Martínez-Ruíz, R Martínez-Cañas
Expert Journal of Marketing 2 (2), 68-81

«Concept mapping as an innovative tool for the assessment of learning: An experimental experience among business management degree students»
P Ruiz-Palomino, R Martinez-Canas
Educational Research and Reviews 8 (22), 2187


«Ethical culture and employee outcomes: The mediating role of person-organization fit»
P Ruiz-Palomino, R Martínez-Cañas, J Fontrodona
Journal of Business Ethics 116 (1), 173-188

«A resource-based view of wine quality in the Spanish region of Castilla-La Mancha»
R Martinez-Canas, P Ruiz-Palomino
Actual Problems of Economics, 378-387


«Human resource management and ethical behaviour: exploring the role of training in the Spanish banking industry»
P Ruiz Palomino, R Martínez
Ramon Llull journal of applied ethics 2 (2), 69-88
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Nowadays there is a growing interest in business ethics,both in academia and professionally. However, moral lapses continue to happen in business activities, leading academicians and professionals to rethink what is being done and reinventing new strategies to successfully manage ethics in business organisations. Thus, whereas efforts to promote ethics are basically oriented to using and developing explicit, written formal mechanisms, the literature suggests that other instruments are also useful and necessary to achieve this. Thus, studying the role of the Human Resource Management (hereafter, HRM) in promoting ethics is an emerging research topic due to the heavy influence that HRM practices are thought to have on employees. This paper is aimed at developing a thorough analysis of HRM’s role in promoting ethics, and specifically at focusing on one of its practices, training. As an illustrative example of the utility of this practice, an empirical study was conducted on a range of Spanish banking companies in which an impact was found on the employees’ ethical behaviour when ethics training was being provided inside the organisation. Finally, the practical implications of these findings and directions for future research are presented.

Human Resource Management (HRM), ethical behaviour,implementation of ethics, training


«Intra-organizational social capital in business organizations: A theoretical model with a focus on servant leadership as antecedent»
P Ruíz, R Martínez, J Rodrigo
Ramon Llull Journal of Applied Ethics 1 (1), 43-59
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This paper explores the antecedents of intra-organizational social capital from a comprehensive perspective that integrates leadership as the main antecedent. To be precise, we propose that intra-organizational social capital is a direct consequence of an organizational ethical and community context to which leadership in the servant dimension plays a transcendental role. Indeed, since the seminal work of Greenleaf (1977) the servant leadership concept has been widespread among business academics and professionals for the value it brings to the organization not only in ethical but also in excellence terms. Among the recent styles and theories on leadership up to date, servant leadership fits perfectly an organizational ethical context both at the organizational or group level, acting in addition as a main promoter of that context. Furthermore, servant leadership is linked to the cultivation of helpful, altruistic and servant attitudes among the employees which are useful elements in the generation of social capital inside the organization. A model then for understanding the causes of intra-organizational social
capital with a focus on servant leadership is here elaborated from which conclusions and implications for Management will be delineated.

associability; business value; applied ethics; organizational ethical context; organizational social capital; servant leadership